Currently, patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and craniocerebral injury in China can only receive traditional treatments like thrombolysis and rehabilitation. Usually, these patients due to the large death number of nerve cells in parts of the brain, most patients have impaired language, physical or cognitive ability, and even long-term hemiplegia, aphasia and other incurable sequelaes, which seriously lower the quality of life of patients. Fortunately, in recent years, the second generation of pluripotent stem cell differentiation technology has gradually matured, and scientists can use this technology to obtain a large number of functional neural stem cells/neural precursor cells in damaged brain regions for cell replacement transplantation in vitro. It is even possible to prepare a patient's own source of neural precursor cells in vitro for treatment of the patient.
This technology allows the collection of somatic cells from patient’s biological samples (hair, skin, peripheral blood, and even urine), which are expanded in vitro and utilize the latest reprogramming methods (non-integration) that do not interfere with the genome of the cell itself, resulting in patients of a very small number of somatic cells. The somatic cells are reversed back to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with self-renewal and omnipotent differentiation, and after 7 to 30 days of culture, these iPSCs are identified and selected, and expanded to form stable cell lines. After a rigorous quality control test, these cells were meet international standards to determine that these cells not only have pluripotent differentiation capabilities, but also that the genome is stable and no genetic mutations have occurred. Then the downstream "induced differentiation" is carried out, that is, the iPSC is gradually transformed into the desired target human cells or tissues by multiple steps and some special induction conditions. Such as: neural stem cells and nerve cells further differentiated into various human neural cells.
After the screening of these neural precursor cells for patients to meet the enrollment conditions, the clinical trials or clinical research hospitals will use the Brainlab 3D intracranial injection system to inject the neural progenitor cells which have been produced and completed with strict quality control into the infarct or intracranial lesion area of the patient's brain through multiple sites, and the patient will take the immunosuppressant within one month to ensure successful transplantation. After one month of transplantation, 80% of neural progenitor cells will gradually differentiate into functional cerebral cortical neurons, 20% of which are astrocyte cells and oligodendrocyte, and gradually merge with patients in 2-3 months. Some nerve cells continue to form the new connections and allowing some of the nerve signals to return to normal transmission. After three months of transplantation, the patient will gradually recover some of their limbs and language functions. As the transplanted nerve cells continue to form new connections, the patient's function will continue to recover for more than one year. This new type of cell replacement therapy replaces the patient's dead nerve cells with truly functional new nerve cells. It can greatly improve the quality of life for patients who are suffer from stroke or craniocerebral injury with only one time of transplant.