Currently, patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and craniocerebral injury in China can only receive traditional treatments like thrombolysis and rehabilitation. Usually, these patients due to the large death number of nerve cells in parts of the brain, most patients have impaired language, physical or cognitive ability, and even long-term hemiplegia, aphasia and other incurable sequelaes, which seriously lower the quality of life of patients. Fortunately, in recent years, the second generation of pluripotent stem cell differentiation technology has gradually matured, and scientists can use this technology to obtain a large number of functional neural stem cells/neural precursor cells in damaged brain regions for cell replacement transplantation in vitro. It is even possible to prepare a patient's own source of neural precursor cells in vitro for treatment of the patient.
This technology allows the collection of somatic cells from patient’s biological samples (hair, skin, peripheral blood, and even urine), which are expanded in vitro and utilize the latest reprogramming methods (non-integration) that do not interfere with the genome of the cell itself, resulting in patients of a very small number of somatic cells. The somatic cells are reversed back to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with self-renewal and omnipotent differentiation, and after 7 to 30 days of culture, these iPSCs are identified and selected, and expanded to form stable cell lines. After a rigorous quality control test, these cells were meet international standards to determine that these cells not only have pluripotent differentiation capabilities, but also that the genome is stable and no genetic mutations have occurred. Then the downstream "induced differentiation" is carried out, that is, the iPSC is gradually transformed into the desired target human cells or tissues by multiple steps and some special induction conditions. Such as: neural stem cells and nerve cells further differentiated into various human neural cells.